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APA Style
Parenthetical Citation
References Cited
Books
Periodicals
Nonprint
MLA Style
Parenthetical Citation
Works Cited
Books
Periodicals
Nonprint
Internet
Turabian Style
Books
Periodicals
Reports
Encyclopedias
Government Documents
Electronic
Works Cited Earlier (shortened note)

Online Resources

APA

APA Style (Home)
APA  Style 
Crib Sheet
Research Papers, APA-Style
Using APA Format
UW-Madison Writing Center Writer's Handbook
Web Extension to APA Style

MLA

MLA Style (Home)
MLA Style Citation
MLA Style Examples
MLA Style Guide
UW-Madison Writing Center Writer's Handbook
Using MLA

Turabian

Turabian Citation Guide
Turabian Style Guide
Turabian Style Guide (.pdf)
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Mr. B's Writing Quick Tips presents this information on documentation only as a general guide.  Some professors and publishing organizations are extremely strict on application of documentation styles.  Others are more concerned that documentation be complete, consistent, and functional.  While Writing Quick Tips strives to assemble information that represents current, acceptable practices -- WE CANNOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR MISUNDERSTANDINGS, MISAPPLICATIONS, DISPLAY ISSUES, AND MORE RECENT UPDATES OF DOCUMENTATION STYLES.

Writers are encouraged to consult with their professors and/or other organizations that will review their work.  They will recommend more detailed directions and/or guides that represent their expectations.  Writing Quick Tips is providing examples that should suit most writer's needs -- BE CAREFUL WITH HOW THESE EXAMPLES "WRAP" ON A GIVEN COMPUTER.  

We cannot fully control the way text appears across different computer platforms -- some of our examples may appear to show line breaks that are incorrect.  This is due to the limitations of HTML and the many factors that influence how text appears on each monitor.  

If not sure on how a given citation should be formatted on a page, Writing Quick Tips recommends that users look at the different examples of that style to better appreciate when a computer monitor has altered our presentation.  If you have any questions about these examples, please refer to the appropriate source documentation in the Online Resource section on the right.

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American Psychological Association (APA)

APA style requires that parenthetical citations in the text refer to entries on the list of References Cited at the end of the paper. The format rules for a bibliography or suggested reading list of materials not referred to in the text of the paper will not be covered in Mr. B's Writing Quick Tips -- these may be found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).

Parenthetical Citations

Include the author's surname in the parenthetical citation, if it is not included in the text, and the date. When citing a particular part of a source, include the page, chapter, figure, table, or equation (section 3.101). Always give page numbers for quotations (section 3.34).

  • Specific parts of a source (3.101) 
    (Cheek & Buss, 1981, p. 332)
    (Shimamura, 1989, chap. 3)
  • 1 author (3.94) 
    Walker (2000) compared reaction times...
    In a recent study of reaction times (Walker, 2000) found...
  • 2 authors (3.95) 
    ...as has been shown (Jöreskog & Sörbom, 1989)
    ...as Nightlinger and Littlewood (1993) demonstrated
  • Three to five authors (3.95)
    All should be listed the first time mentioned 
    First entry: Wasserstein, Zappulla, Rosen, Gerstman, and Rock (1994) found...
    Subsequent entries: Wasserstein et al. (1994) found...
  • Groups as authors (3.96)
    List author name in full. Some long names may later be abbreviated. 
    (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1999)...
    (NIMH, 1999)
  • No author (including legal materials) (3.97) 
    Punctuate the first few words as in the REFERENCES CITED entry and add the year.
    ... on free care ("Study finds," 1982)
    ... the book College Bound Seniors (1979)
  • Multiple works (3.99) 
    Several studies (Balda, 1980; Kamil, 1988; Pepperberg & Funk, 1990)...
  • Multiple works by an author in one year (3.99) 
    Several studies (Johnson, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c)...
  • Personal communications (3.102) 
    Include initials and provide as exact a date as possible.
    Cite personal communications in text only; do NOT include them in the REFERENCES CITED.
    According to T. K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2001)...
    ...(V.-G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1998)
  • Secondary source citing primary (4.16, #22) 
    Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993)...
    Include both sources in text. Include Coltheart, not Seidenberg in REFERENCES CITED.

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References Cited

List citations in alphabetical order. List works by the same author in chronological order. List multiple works by the same author in one year alphabetically by title and append letters to the years as in the PARENTHETICAL CITATIONS: Multiple works example above. 

Always double-space REFERENCES CITED and use a hanging indent (first line is flush left, no indent; any text that "wraps" to another line is intended 1/2", hanging under the first line).  These examples (HTML) do not illustrate the double space or hanging indent.  (Note:  Some professors may require underlining where italics appear in these examples.)

Books

Important Note:  These examples (HTML) do not illustrate the double space or hanging indent.  (Note:  Some professors may require underlining where italics appear in these examples.)

  • Two authors (4.16, #23) 
    Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R., Jr. (1987). People in organizations: An introduction to organizational behavior (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Group author as publisher (4.16, #24) 
    Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1991). Estimated resident population by age and sex in statistical local areas, New South Wales, June 1990 (No. 3209.1). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Author.
  • Edited book (4.16, #25) 
    Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (1991). Children of color: Psychological interventions with minority youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • No author or editor (4.16 #26) 
    Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
  • Article or chapter in an edited book, two editors (4.16, #34) 
    Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory. In H. L. Roediger III & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.). Varieties of memory & consciousness (pp. 309-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Chapter in a volume in a series (4.16, #36) 
    Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (Series Ed.) & E. M. Hetherington (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development (4th ed., pp. 1-101). New York: Wiley.
  • Encyclopedia articles If article has no byline, place the title in the author position (4.16, #38) 
    Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopaedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.
  • Government document (4.16, #41) 
    National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.  

    Note:  Legal documents such as hearings may be listed in the style shown in The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation shelved at the Reference Desk (Ref KF245. U53), for example: 

    Protection from Personal Intrusion Act and Privacy Protection Act of 1998: Hearing on H.R. 2448 and H.R. 3224 Before the House Comm. on the Judiciary, 105th Cong. 56-57 (1998) (statement of Richard Masur, President, Screen Actors Guild).

  • Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) microfiche, (4.16, #43) 
    Mead, J. V. (1992). Looking at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that novice teachers bring with them (Report No. NCRTL-RR-92-4). East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teacher Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED346082)
  • Thesis or dissertation (4.16, #54 & 57) 
    Almeida, D. M. (1990). Fathers' participation in family work: Consequences for fathers' stress and father-child relations. Unpublished masters thesis, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

    Bower, D. L. (1993). Employee assistant programs supervisory referrals: Characteristics of referring and nonreferring supervisors. Dissertation Abstracts International, 54 (01), 534B. (UMI No. 9315947)

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Periodicals 

Important Note:  These examples (HTML) do not illustrate the double space or hanging indent.  (Note:  Some professors may require underlining where italics appear in these examples.)

  • One author; journal paginated through year (4.16, #1) 
    Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 910-924.
  • Two to six authors; journal paginated by issue (4.16, #2) 
    Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36.
  • Magazine article (as opposed to a scholarly journal) (4.16, #6) 
    Kandel, E. R., & Squire, L. R. (2000, November 10). Neuroscience: Breaking down scientific barriers to the study of brain and mind. Science, 290, 1113-1120.
  • Newspaper article (4.16, #9) 
    New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12.
  • Entire issue of a journal (4.16, #12) 
    Barlow, D. H. (Ed.). (1991). Diagnoses, dimensions, and DSM-IV: The science of classification [Special issue]. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(3).
  • Book review (4.16, #63) 
    Schatz, B. R. (2000). Learning by text or context? [Review of the book The social life of information]. Science, 290, 1304.

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Nonprint Media

Important Note:  These examples (HTML) do not illustrate the double space or hanging indent.  (Note:  Some professors may require underlining where italics appear in these examples.)

  • Motion Picture or videotape (4.16, #65) 
    Scorsese, M. (Producer), & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000). You can count on me [Videotape]. United States: Paramount Pictures
  • Audio recording (4.16, #70) 
    Costa, P. T., Jr. (Speaker). (1988). Personality, continuity, and changes of adult life (Cassette Recording No. 207-433-88A-B). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Internet article based on print source (4.16, #71) 
    Fandangos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates [Electronic version]. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123.
  • Internet-only journal article (4.16, #72) 
    Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from 
    http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html
  • Multipage Internet document (use (n.d.) when there is no known date) (4.16, #75) 
    Henry, E. (2005, January 25). Rice confirmed as secretary of state: Ex-national security adviser first black female to hold office. Retrieved January 26, 2005, from http://www.cnn.com/2005/ALLPOLITICS/01/26/rice.confirmation/index.html
  • Electronic copy of a journal article, from database (4.16, #88) 
    Borman, W. C., Hanson, M.A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 443-449. Retrieved October 23, 2000, from PsycARTICLES database.
  • Abstract from a secondary database (4.16 #90) 
    Fournier, M., de Ridder, D., & Bensing, J. (1999). Optimism and adaptation to multiple sclerosis: What does optimism mean? Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 303-326. Abstract retrieved October 23, 2000, from PsycINFO database.

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Modern Language Association (MLA)

MLA requires a list of Works Cited at the end of a paper and parenthetical documentation in the text of the paper, referring to entries on the Works Cited list. Cite only sources to which the paper refers, not every work examined. Entries in the Works Cited list should be arranged alphabetically by principal author's last name or, if the work is anonymous, by its title. Each entry should usually include name(s) of author(s), full title of work, place of publication, publisher, date of publication and, for periodical articles, volume, issue and inclusive page numbers. Bibliographic information should be taken from the source's title page.

Parenthetical Documentation

  • All parenthetical documentation  precedes the concluding punctuation mark of the sentence, phrase or clause
    ... Machiavelli contended that human beings were by nature "ungrateful" and "mutable" (1240), and Montaigne thought them "miserable and puny" (1343).
  • Author's name in text
    Tannen has argued this point (178-85).
  • Author name in reference
    This point has already been argued (Tannen 178-85).
  • Two or three authors' names in reference
    ... (Jakobson and Waugh 210-15).
  • More than three authors' names in reference
    ... (Lauter et al. 2425-33).
  • Title (periodical article) but no author name in reference
    ... ("Decade").
  • Corporate author in text (this is the preferred method)
    The United Nations' Economic Commission for Africa predicted ... (1-2, 4-6).
  • One of a multivolume volume work in reference (if multiple volumes cited in bibliographic entry)
    ... (Wellek 2: 1-10).
  • Nonadjacent pages in reference
    ... (Taves, 153-54, 171).
  • Quotation in secondary source in reference (use when only an indirect source is available)
    ... (qtd. in Weinberg 1: 405, 616-17).
  • Multiple works in reference
    ... (Lauter et al., vol. 1; Crane).

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Works Cited

Center the title, Works Cited, at the top of a page at the end of the paper. Do not indent the first line of each citation, but indent all subsequent lines 1/2 inch (hanging indent). Always double space the Works Cited. More information about formatting the Works Cited begins on p. 145 of the Handbook and p. 153 of the Manual.  These examples (HTML) do not illustrate the double space or hanging indent. 

  • Multiple publications by the same author
    Frye, Northrop. Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1957.

    ---. The Double Vision: Language and Meaning in Religion. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1991.

    ---, ed. Sound and Poetry. New York: Columbia UP, 1957.

Books

Important Note:  These examples (HTML) do not illustrate the double space or hanging indent. 

  • One author
    Rosenthal, Robert. Meta-Analytic Procedures for Social Research. 2nd ed. Newbury Park: Sage, 1987.
  • Two or three authors
    Welsch, Roger L., and Linda K. Welsch. Cather's Kitchens: Foodways in Literature and Life. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1987.
  • More than three authors
    Quirk, Randolph, et al. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman, 1985.
  • Corporate author
    Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Campus Life: In Search of Community. Princeton: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1990.
  • One work in an anthology/without author
    "A Witchcraft Story." The Hopi Way: Tales from a Vanishing Culture. Comp. Mando Sevillano. Flagstaff: Northland, 1986. 33-42.
  • Signed article in an encyclopedia
    Le Patourel, John. "Normans and Normandy." Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Ed. Joseph R. Strayer. 13 vols. New York: Scribner's, 1987.
  • Unsigned article in a well-known encyclopedia
    "Mandarin." The Encyclopedia Americana. 1994 ed.
  • Edited work
    Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. Ed. Barbara A. Mowat and Paul Werstine. New York: Washington Square-Pocket, 1992.

    Tannen, Deborah, ed. Gender and Conversational Interaction. New York: Oxford UP, 1993.

  • Translated work
    Homer. The Odyssey. Trans. Robert Fagles. New York: Viking, 1996.
  • Second or subsequent edition
    Newcomb, Horace, ed. Television: The Critical View. 5th ed. New York: Oxford UP, 1994.
  • One of multivolume work
    Stowe, Harriet Beecher. "Sojourner Truth, the Libyan Sibyl." 1863. The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Ed. Paul Lauter et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. Lexington: Heath, 1994. 2425-33. 
  • One work in a series
    Neruda, Pablo. Canto General. Trans. Jack Schmitt. Latin Amer. Lit. and Culture 7. Berkeley: U of California P, 1991.
  • Pamphlet without author
    Renoir Lithographs. New York: Dover, 1994.
  • Government document
    United Nations. Consequences of Rapid Population Growth in Developing Countries. New York: Taylor, 1991.

    United States. Cong. Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack. Hearings. 79th Cong., 1st and 2nd sess. 32 vols. Washington: GPO, 1946.

  • Presentation in published proceedings of a conference
    Hualde, José Ignacio. "Patterns of Correspondence in the Adaptation of Spanish Borrowings in Basque." Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 12-15, 1999: General Session and Parasession on Loan Word Phenomena. Ed. Steve S. Chang, Lily Liaw, and Josef Ruppenhofer. Berkeley: Berkeley Linguistics Soc., 2000. 348-58.
  • Abstract from Dissertation Abstracts International
    Stephenson, Denise R. "Blurred Distinctions: Emerging Forms of Academic Writing." Diss. U of New Mexico, 1996. DAI 57 (1996): 1700A.

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Periodical Articles

Important Note:  These examples (HTML) do not illustrate the double space or hanging indent. 

  • Journal article with volume number, year, and pages (continuous pagination)
    Mann, Susan. "Myths of Asian Womanhood." Journal of Asian Studies 59 (2000): 835-62.
  • Journal article with volume, issue number(s), year, and pages (paginated by issue)
    Barthelme, Frederick. "Architecture." Kansas Quarterly 13.3-4 (1981): 77-80.
  • Magazine article (do not give volume and issue numbers, even if listed)
    Perlstein, Rick. "Abridged Too Far?" Lingua Franca Apr.-May 1997: 23-24.
  • Newspaper article with nonconsecutive pages
    Goldberg, Vicki. "Photographing a Mexico Where Silence Reigned." New York Times 23 Mar. 1997, late ed., sec. 2: 39+.
  • Review, unsigned, untitled
    Rev. of Anthology of Danish Literature, ed. F. J. Billeskev Jansen and P. M. Mitchell. Times Literary Supplement 7 July 1972: 785.
  • Abstract
    McCabe, Donald L. "Faculty Responses to Academic Dishonesty: The Influence of Student Honor Codes." Research in Higher Education 34 (1993): 647-58. Abstract. Current Index to Journals in Education 26 (1994): item EJ471017. 

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Non-Print Resources

Important Note:  These examples (HTML) do not illustrate the double space or hanging indent. 

  • Television or radio program
    "Yes . . . but Is It Art?" Narr. Morley Safer. Sixty Minutes. CBS. WCBS, New York. 19 Sept. 1993.
  • Film or videorecording
    It's a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell. 1946. DVD. Republic, 2001.
  • Interview conducted by citer
    Poussaint, Alvin F. Telephone interview. 10 Dec. 1998.

Internet resources

Important Note:  These examples (HTML) do not illustrate the double space or hanging indent. 

Note:  MLA recommends inserting the date of access immediately before the location <URL>.

  • Article on a general site
    Henry, Edward. "Rice Confirmed as Secretary of State: Ex-National Security Adviser First Black Female to Hold Office." CNN.com. 25 January 2005. Cable News Network. 26 Jan. 2005 <http://www.cnn.com/2005/ALLPOLITICS/01/26/rice.confirmation/index.html>.
  • Professional site
    Nineteenth-Century German Stories. Ed. Robert Godwin-Jones. 1999. Foreign Lang. Dept., Virginia Commonwealth U. 10 Jan. 2002 <http://www.fln.vcu.edu/menu.html>.
  • Book at a scholarly project or site
    Nesbit, E[dith]. Ballads and Lyrics of Socialism. London, 1908. Victorian Women Writers Project. Ed. Perry Willett. May 2000. Indiana U. 26 June 2002 <http://www.indiana.edu/~letrs/vwwp/ nesbit/ballsoc.html>.
  • Article in an encyclopedia
    "Fresco Painting." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 2002. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 8 May 2002 <http://search.eb.com/>.
  • Article in an electronic journal available independently
    Dane, Gabrielle. "Reading Ophelia's Madness." Exemplaria 10.2 (1998). 22 June 2002 <http://web.english.ufl.edu/english/exemplaria/danefram.htm>.
  • Article in an electronic journal available as part of an archival database
    Chan, Evans. "Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema." Postmodern Culture 10.3 (2000). Project Muse. 20 May 2002 <http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/pmc/v010/10.3chan.html>.
  • Article from a library subscription service
    McMichael, Anthony J. "Population, Environment, Disease, and Survival: Past Patterns, Uncertain Futures." Lancet 30 Mar. 2002: 1145-48. Academic Universe: Medical. LexisNexis. U of Wisconsin-Whitewater, University Lib. 22 May 2002 <http://web.lexis-nexis.com/>.
  • Online posting
    Note:  Whenever feasible, cite an archival version of the posting.
    Chu, Michael. "Bellini Style." Online posting. 20 May 2002. Opera-L. 21 May 2002 <http://lists.cuny.edu/archives/opera-l.html>.

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Turabian Style

Turabian recommends that the style shown here, footnotes and bibliographies, be used for works in the humanities, but that for the natural and social sciences, parenthetical references and reference lists should be used instead.

Citations to sources used for ideas and quotations should appear as footnotes in numerical order at the bottoms of pages or as endnotes at the end of the paper. Footnote or endnote numbers should correspond to the note numbers at the ends of the passages in the text to which they refer. The Arabic note numbers in text should be superscripts, placed one half space above the line. The Arabic note numbers with the citations should be followed by a period and a space as shown below.

The first time a work is mentioned, the entry is given completely: the author's full name (first name first), title, place, publisher, date, and specific page(s) or section from which concepts are taken. Subsequent references to the same work may be made in shortened form.  The source of descriptive information for a book should be its title page. The source for a journal's description should be its cover, table of contents page, and the article itself.  

The bibliography should list the sources used in writing--not necessarily every work examined, but those found relevant. The entries should be arranged alphabetically by author's surname, and include full bibliographic detail: name(s) of author(s), full title of work, place, publisher, and date of publication.  The following examples illustrate footnote and corresponding bibliography entries. For more information, see Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations 6th ed.

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Books

IMPORTANT NOTE:   All entries (Footnotes and Endnotes & Bibliography) are single-spaded with a double-space between them.  (not illustrated here)  Footnotes and Endnotes are all indented 1/2."  Bibliography entries are all done with hanging indents (first line is flush left, no indent; any text that "wraps" to another line is intended 1/2", hanging under the first line).  These examples (HTML) do not illustrate indents or or hanging indents. 

  • Two Authors
    Footnote: 
    1. Walter E. Houghton and G. Robert Strange, Victorian Poetry and Poetics (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959), 27.
    Bibliography Entry:
    Houghton, Walter E., and G. Robert Strange. Victorian Poetry and Poetics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959.
  • Three Authors
    Footnote:
    2. Bernard R. Berelson, Paul F. Lazarsfeld, and William McPhee, Voting (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954), 93-95.
    Bibliography Entry: 
    Berelson, Bernard R., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, and William McPhee. Voting. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954.
  • More Than Three Authors
    Footnote:
    3. Jaroslav J. Pelikan et al., Religion and the University, York University Invitation Lecture Series (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1964), 109.
    Bibliography Entry:
    Pelikan, Jaroslav J, William G. Pollard, Charles Moeller, Maurice N. Eisendrath, and Alexander Wittenberg. Religion and the University. York University Invitation Lecture Series. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1964.
  • No Author Given
    Footnote:
    4. The Lottery (London: J. Watts, 1732), 20-25.
    Bibliography Entry:
    The Lottery. London: J. Watts, 1732.
  • Institution as Author
    Footnote:
    5. Special Libraries Association, Directory of Business and Financial Services (New York: Special Libraries Association, 1963), 21.
    Bibliography Entry:
    Special Libraries Association. Directory of Business and Financial Services. New York: Special Libraries Association, 1963.
  • Editor as Author (similar form used for compiler)
    Footnote:
    6. J. N. D. Anderson, ed., The World's Religions (London: Inter-Varsity Fellowship, 1950), 143.
    Bibliography Entry:
    Anderson, J. N. D., ed. The World's Religions. London: Inter-Varsity Fellowship, 1950.
  • Author's Work Translated or Edited by Another
    Footnote: 
    7. Ivar Lissner, The Living Past, trans. J. Maxwell Brownjohn (New York: Putnam, 1957), 58.
    Bibliography Entry:
    Lissner, Ivar. The Living Past. Translated by J. Maxwell Brownjohn. New York: Putnam, 1957.
  • Separately Titled Volume in a Work with a General Title and Editor(s)
    Footnote:
    8. Gordon N. Ray, gen. ed., An Introduction to Literature (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1959), vol. 2, The Nature of Drama, by Hubert Hefner,47-49.
    Bibliography Entry:
    Ray, Gordon N., gen. ed. An Introduction to Literature. Vol. 2, The Nature of Drama, by Hubert Hefner. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1959.
  • Edition Other than the First
    Footnote:
    9. W. R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 8th ed. (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1956), 62.
    Bibliography Entry:
    Shepherd, W. R. Historical Atlas. 8th ed. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1956.
  • Reprint Edition
    Footnote:
    10. Gunnar Myrdal, Population: A Problem for Democracy (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1940; reprint, Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1956), 9.
    Bibliography Entry:
    Myrdal, Gunnar. Population: A Problem for Democracy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1940; reprint, Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1956.
  • Part by an Author in a Work by Another
    Footnote:
    11. Paul Tillich, "Being and Love," in Moral Principles of Action, ed. Ruth N. Anshen (New York: Harper & Bros., 1952), 663.
    Bibliography Entry:
    Tillich, Paul. "Being and Love." in Moral Principles of Action, ed. Ruth N. Anshen, 66172. New York: Harper & Bros., 1952.
  • Secondary Source of Quotation
    Footnote:
    12. Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, vol. 59, n. 41; quoted in (or "cited by") Archer Butler Hulbert, Portage Paths (Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark, 1903), 181.
    Bibliography Entry:
    Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, vol. 59, n. 41. Quoted in Archer Butler Hulbert. Portage Paths, 181. Cleveland: Arthur H. Clark, 1903.

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Reports

IMPORTANT NOTE:   All entries (Footnotes and Endnotes & Bibliography) are single-spaded with a double-space between them.  (not illustrated here)  Footnotes and Endnotes are all indented 1/2."  Bibliography entries are all done with hanging indents (first line is flush left, no indent; any text that "wraps" to another line is intended 1/2", hanging under the first line).  These examples (HTML) do not illustrate indents or or hanging indents. 

  • Author Named
    Footnote:
    13. John H. Postley, Report on a Study of Behavioral Factors in Information Systems (Los Angeles: Hughes Dynamics, 1960), 15
    Bibliography Entry:
    Postley, John H. Report on a Study of Behavioral Factors in Information Systems. Los Angeles: Hughes Dynamics, 1960.
  • Unpublished Report or Thesis
    Footnote:
    14. O. C. Phillips, Jr., "The Influence of Ovid on Lucan's Bellum Civile" (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1962), 14.
    Bibliography Entry:
    Phillips, O.C., Jr. "The Influence of Ovid on Lucan's Bellum Civile." Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1962.
    Footnote:
    15. American Institute of Planners, Chicago Chapter, "Regional Shopping Centers Planning Symposium" (Chicago, 1942), 5, mimeographed.
    Bibliography Entry:
    American Institute of Planners, Chicago Chapter. "Regional Shopping Centers Planning Symposium." Chicago, 1942. Mimeographed.
  • Microform Reproduction such as an ERIC Document
    Footnote:
    16. Godwin C. Chu and Wilbur Schramm, "Learning from Television: What the Research Says," 1967, 3, EDRS, ED 014900, microfiche.
    Bibliography Entry:
    Chu, Godwin C., and Wilbur Schramm. "Learning from Television: What the Research Says." 1967. EDRS, ED 014900. Microfiche.

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Periodical Articles

IMPORTANT NOTE:   All entries (Footnotes and Endnotes & Bibliography) are single-spaded with a double-space between them.  (not illustrated here)  Footnotes and Endnotes are all indented 1/2."  Bibliography entries are all done with hanging indents (first line is flush left, no indent; any text that "wraps" to another line is intended 1/2", hanging under the first line).  These examples (HTML) do not illustrate indents or or hanging indents. 

  • Article in a Journal
    Footnote:
    17. Don Swanson, "Dialogue with a Catalogue," Library Quarterly 34 (December 1963): 115.
    Bibliography Entry:
    Swanson, Don. "Dialogue with a Catalogue." Library Quarterly 34 (December 1963): 113-25.
  • Article in a Magazine of General Interest
    Footnote:
    18. Barbara W. Tuchman, "If Asia Were Clay in the Hands of the West," Atlantic, September 1970, 72.
    Bibliography Entry:
    Tuchman, Barbara W. "If Asia Were Clay in the Hands of the West." Atlantic, September 1970, 68-84.
  • Newspaper Article
    Footnote:
    19. San Francisco Chronicle, 5 June 1971.
    Bibliography Entry:
    San Francisco Chronicle, 5 June 1971.
    Footnote:
    20. "Amazing Amazon Region," New York Times, 12 January 1969, sec. 4, p. E11.
    Bibliography Entry:
    "Amazing Amazon Region." New York Times, 12 January 1969, sec. 4, p. E11.
  • When the name of the newspaper does not include the name of the city, insert the place name before the newspaper title with the state in parentheses, all italicized or underlined. For foreign newspapers give the name of the city in parentheses after the title.
    Footnote:
    21. Palo Alto (California) Times, 19 November 1970.
    Footnote:
    22. Times (London), 6 June 1964.
  • Book Review
    Footnote:
    23. Dwight Frankfather, review of The Disabled State, by Deborah A. Stone, Social Service Review 59 (September 1985): 524.
    Bibliography Entry:
    Frankfather, Dwight. Review of The Disabled State, by Deborah A. Stone. Social Service Review 59 (September 1985): 523-25.

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Encyclopedia Articles

IMPORTANT NOTE:   All entries (Footnotes and Endnotes & Bibliography) are single-spaded with a double-space between them.  (not illustrated here)  Footnotes and Endnotes are all indented 1/2."  Bibliography entries are all done with hanging indents (first line is flush left, no indent; any text that "wraps" to another line is intended 1/2", hanging under the first line).  These examples (HTML) do not illustrate indents or or hanging indents. 

  • Footnote:
    24. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed., s.v. "Blake, William," by J. W. Comyns-Carr.
    Bibliography Entry:
    Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed. S.v. "Blake, William," by J. W. Comyns-Carr.

Government Documents

IMPORTANT NOTE:   All entries (Footnotes and Endnotes & Bibliography) are single-spaded with a double-space between them.  (not illustrated here)  Footnotes and Endnotes are all indented 1/2."  Bibliography entries are all done with hanging indents (first line is flush left, no indent; any text that "wraps" to another line is intended 1/2", hanging under the first line).  These examples (HTML) do not illustrate indents or or hanging indents. 

  • Footnote:
    25. Congress, Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Policy in the Persian Gulf, 102nd Cong., 1st sess., 8 January 1991, p. 6.
    Bibliography Entry: 
    U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. U.S. Policy in the Persian Gulf. 102nd Cong., 1st sess., 8 January 1991.

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Electronic Media

IMPORTANT NOTE:   All entries (Footnotes and Endnotes & Bibliography) are single-spaded with a double-space between them.  (not illustrated here)  Footnotes and Endnotes are all indented 1/2."  Bibliography entries are all done with hanging indents (first line is flush left, no indent; any text that "wraps" to another line is intended 1/2", hanging under the first line).  These examples (HTML) do not illustrate indents or or hanging indents. 

  • Footnote:
    26. University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, Andersen Library, "Citing References: Turabian Style" [User guide on-line], (Whitewater, WI: University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, 1996); available from http://library.uww.edu/GUIDES/turacite.htm; Internet; accessed 29 July 2001.
    Bibliography Entry: 
    University of Wisconsin-Whitewater. Andersen Library. "Citing References: Turabian Style." User Guide on-line. Whitewater, WI: University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, 1996. Available from http://library.uww.edu/GUIDES/turacite.htm. Internet. Accessed 29 July 2001.

Footnote:
27. Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs, "Background Notes: Mexico, November 1995," reproduced in National Trade Data Bank [CD-ROM], June 1996.
Bibliography Entry: 
U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs. "Background Notes: Mexico, November 1995." Reproduced in National Trade Data Bank [CD-ROM], June 1996.

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Shortened Note for Works Cited Earlier

IMPORTANT NOTE:   All entries are single-spaded with a double-space between them (not illustrated here).  Footnotes and Endnotes are all indented 1/2."  Bibliography entries are all done with hanging indents (first line is flush left, no indent; any text that "wraps" to another line is intended 1/2", hanging under the first line).  These examples (HTML) do not illustrate indents or or hanging indents. 

  • When references to the same work follow each other without intervening references, "ibid." is used in the latter note.
    Footnote: 
    28. Max Plowman, An Introduction to the Study of Blake (London: Gollancz, 1952), 31.
    Footnote: 
    29. Ibid., 68.
  • If reference is to a book already cited in full but not in the reference immediately preceding, and only one work of the author has been used, then just the author's last name is needed.
    Footnote: 
    30. Plowman, 125.
  • If two or more works of the same author have been cited, use the author's last name and brief title.
    Footnote: 
    31. Plowman, Blake, 189.

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